Activity 6 – Contemporary issues and trends

The New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) argues that current educational systems, structures and practices are not sufficient to address and support learning needs for all students in the 21st century. Changes are needed, but what kinds of change, and for what reasons?

International thinking about education has shifted to a new paradigm. This shift has been driven by an awareness of massive and ongoing social, economic and technological changes, and the exponentially increasing amount of human knowledge being generated as a result.

KPMG’s Future State 2030 – Global Megatrends, identifies some of the most important global trends that they believe will define our future. Two of these, especially poignant for the teaching profession are;

  1. Advances in global education, health and technology are empowering individuals like never before, leading to increased demands for transparency and participation in decision making.
  2. Information and communications technology (ICT) has transformed society over the last 30 years. A new wave of technological advances is now creating novel
    opportunities, begging the question, what work will my students be doing by 2030?


A key trend that has characterised the move away from the old paradigm is the move from teachers completely owning the learning process to learners owning more of it. When learners have the power to act in their learning, they have what is known as ‘agency’.

Agency can take many forms from being empowered to make decisions about which activity to move onto next through to learners being empowered to take positive social action in their communities. Providing choices in learning (whether to work individually or in a group; whether to evidence of learning using a piece of writing or a diagram) is an important factor in engagement, which is in turn a contributor to student learning and success.

What I can do is seek new ways to invite, honour and act on student voice, both in learning and across the wider life of school. This means gathering student views through surveys or focus groups and having students actively participating in classroom decision making. I can begin by exploring the perspectives on the wellbeing of students, by asking if they can say the following about themselves:

  1. I am valued and accepted and have opportunities to make a positive contribution to my learning and culture of my school.
  2. Learning is interesting and fun. I have a say in what I learn about and how.
  3. My language, culture and identity are acknowledged, valued and celebrated.
  4. My teacher respects, accepts and celebrates all the things that make me, me.
  5. My opinions matter.
  6. There are lots of options, groups and people at school that can help develop what I am good at.


The concept of digital convergence refers to the merging of previously discrete and separately used technologies, as well as the constant integration and use of technologies as a part of our everyday life. This brings both challenges and opportunities to those working in education. On the one hand, the proliferation of individually owned devices, be they smart phones or tablets for example, means that students can now access information at any time they wish – whether that be something that supports their learning, or something that may be a distraction to their learning. Engagement and motivation does not always translate to deeper understanding, but this has also changed the balance of power in our classrooms, where teachers have traditionally been the ones who have controlled the flow of knowledge and what is learned.

Another significant impact for my practice however, is the ability to now develop personalised learning pathways, that are more intuitive and responsive to the mix of the learners, level of progress and availability of support available to them. It is on this platform, (beginning in my case with GAFE) that a highly tailored set of outcomes and feedback can be established and monitored in my classroom.



Bolstad, R., Gilbert, J., McDowall, S., Bull, A., Boyd, S., & Hipkins, R. (2012). Supporting future-oriented learning & teaching: A New Zealand perspective. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from

CORE. (2015). CORE Education’s Ten Trends 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from CORE Education:

Education Review Office. (2015). Wellbeing for Children’s Success at Primary School. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from ERO:

KPMG Australia. (2014). Future State 2030 – Global Megatrends. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from

Ministry of Education. (2014). How does New Zealand’s education system compare? Retrieved October 17, 2015, from Education Counts:

Activity 5 – Professional connection map



The above map depicts the many direct and potential connections associated with my practice. My immediate day to day links (in green) are Government agencies that oversee education, online communities that I participate in, media outlets that keep me informed, the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC) which guides my content, friends and family who provide support and work / life balance and of course Freemans Bay School (FBS) that employs me!

FBS links directly (in light blue) to my students, teaching staff, our vision, professional development and the school community. At the edge of some of these links lie many potential leads for future integrative networks.

Other cluster schools and online communities have a considerable impact on my profession. The Modern Learning Environments (MLEs) that neighbouring schools have created has influenced changes to our environment (we knocked out the walls!) There is a corporate aspect to this as well. Research suggests the needs of 21st Century learners will be better addressed in an environment similar to current and future workplaces. We can better prepare students for the jobs, and social enterprises of the future by creating open, collaborative spaces.

The fact that 87% of our year 6s will go on to a local intermediate also has an effect on our teaching and learning program. We can construct understandings and share expertise across levels, which is of great value in preparing our students for their next step. By sharing our expertise within similar communities we are also able to create and foster similar, future learning environments. We can share experiences to expand and extend beyond our own classrooms. Shared knowledge can help to guide inquiries into new teaching approaches and support best practices and emerging models.

Educators are doing amazing things with their learners despite standards based and accountability driven movements. Using online communities we are publishing great projects via Twitter, Facebook, and Blogs and sharing resources using platforms like Pond. We have global collaborations, fascinating new ways technology is being integrated into the classroom, students making a difference in their communities, and great project-based learning. Jackie Gerstein has a great blog about using theses connections called User Generated Education.

Interdisciplinarity means integrating the information, perspectives, and tools of two or more disciplines to advance understanding or solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline.

To be proficient in core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice, an expert panel came up with four competency domains:

  1. Values and ethics. The goal in this domain is to work with individuals from other professions to maintain a climate of mutual respect and shared values.
  2. Roles and responsibilities. The goal is to understand your own role and those of other professions and then use that understanding to appropriately assess and address the educational needs of your students.
  3. Interprofessional communications. The goal is to communicate with students,  families, communities, and other education professionals in a responsive, responsible manner that supports the team approach not just for teaching but for maintaining life long learning.
  4. Teams and teamwork. The goal is to apply relationship-building values and the principles of team dynamics to perform effectively in different team roles to plan and deliver student centered learning that’s safe, efficient, effective, and equitable.

Benefits for the teaching profession, according to Mathison & Freeman (1997, pg) include:

Improved and more meaningful relations with students, more curricular flexibility, better overall integration of new and rapidly changing information, better collegiality and support between teachers and wider comprehension of the connections between disciplines. Perhaps the most key benefit however is relevance to the needs of the twenty-first century. New curriculum approaches are constantly being created to align with the imperative that schools move towards the future. Sharing expertise across connections allows expertise outside of our immediate connections to be more accessible and viable, across many platforms.

To integrate disciplines is to address the needs of the whole child, which Mathison and Freeman (1997) suggest is the cornerstone of the interdisciplinary approach. When educators consider their curricular objectives and students’ needs, they may choose interdisciplinary teaching and learning to deliver part or all of the content they will present. This method can help bring students to a new awareness of the meaningful connections that exist among the disciplines.

Ten suggestions for Interdisciplinary Teaching can be found here.




Clay, R. A. (2011). 2011 Education Leadership Conference: Interdisciplinary and interprofessional teaching, research, and practice. Retrieved October 7, 2015, from American Psychological Association:

Mathison, S. & Freeman, M.(1997). The logic of interdisciplinary studies. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, 1997. Retrieved October 7, 2015, from

Activity 4 – My professional community

Good teachers have always tried put the learner first, but the learner at the center of the learning process (something that seems obvious), is not so easily realised in practice.

Stakeholders in my professional community include parents and families, teachers and staff members, administrators, community members, local business leaders, and elected officials such as school board members, city councilors, and the Ministry of Education. Stakeholders are also collective entities, such as local businesses and organisations, advocacy groups, committees, media outlets, and cultural institutions, in addition to organisations that represent specific groups, such as the teachers union, parent-teacher organisations, and associations representing principals and school boards. Basically anyone who has a personal, professional, civic, or financial interest or concern!

In my school shared leadership allows for the creation of leadership roles and decision-making opportunities for teachers, staff members, students, parents, and community members, while community voice refers to the degree to which we include and act upon the values, opinions, beliefs, perspectives, and cultural backgrounds of the people in our community. We take on shared leadership responsibilities at school, to give voice to ideas, perspectives, and opinions especially during team, staff or school-board meetings.

Stakeholders also play a role in community-based learning, the practice of connecting what is being taught at school to our surrounding community, which may include local history, literature, and cultural heritages, in addition to local experts, institutions, and natural environments. Community-based learning is also motivated by our belief that all communities have intrinsic educational assets that educators can use to enhance learning experiences for students, so they are necessarily involved in the process.

Increasingly, my school is being more proactive about involving a greater diversity of stakeholders, particularly stakeholders from disadvantaged communities and backgrounds or from groups that have underperformed academically, including English-language learners, Maori and Pasifika, immigrant students, and special-education students. In our case, the Student Achievement Focus (SAF) grant requires the involvement of multiple stakeholder groups as a condition of funding.

We advocate for more inclusive, community-wide involvement in our school-improvement process. By including more members of our school community in the process, we can foster a stronger sense of “ownership” among the participants and within the broader community. In other words, when the members of our  community feel that their ideas and opinions are being heard, and when they are given the opportunity to participate authentically in a planning or improvement process, they feel more invested in the work and in the achievement of its goals, which will therefore increase the likelihood of success.

Our school decile is reasonably high (6) but many of our students are living in low income households (generally city apartments) and are from diverse cultures. It is widely acknowledged that higher income and wealth provides access to a wider range of life experiences and to resources that can support learning .

To quote from a recent article by Duncan and Magnuson (2013, pp.15- 16):

“Compared with children whose families had incomes of at least twice the poverty-line level during their early childhood, poor children complete two fewer years of schooling, earned less than half as much money, worked 451 fewer hours per year … and are nearly three times as likely to report poor overall health.”

Many of our children come to school tired, hungry, and cold, wearing inappropriate clothing and often they are coming to school unwell (or not at all). We do have Milk for Schools and a system where the school will provide morning tea and lunch but this often takes money away from other areas like Information and communications technology (ICT).

We are unable to supply one to one ICT devices and even after introducing Bring Your Own Learning Device (BYOLD) we found that most of our families could not afford them. This makes it difficult to introduce further change initiatives that are technology based.

Another factor is home learning. We do not promote homework as such but encourage our students to have a reading logs and read with caregivers at home. When families are recently arrived immigrants with little or no English this can also prove challenging.

How we meet some of these challenges affects our practice. On Tuesdays and Thursdays after school I will take 5 “target” students to the school library where we use the computers to complete tasks on Reading Eggs, Mathletics and Spellodrome. I also meet with the parents of these students twice a term to discuss strategies we employ to increase their exposure to ICT. While this does plug some gaps there are still many students missing out on learning opportunities.

This site provides a number of ways the parents and the community can help resolve some of the issues.

About us


Every Child Counts. (2015). Child Poverty. Retrieved October 7, 2015, from Every Child Counts:

Duncan, G. and Magnuson, K. (2013) ‘The importance of poverty: early in childhood’, Policy Quarterly, 9 (2), pp.12-17

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2014).  STAKEHOLDER. Retrieved October 7, 2015, from The Glossary of Education Reform:

Activity 3 – Reflections on ‘Reflective Practice’

What are the points in this article that captivate my attention?

Certainly I believe that reflective practice both ‘rings true’ and is a part of the process of life-long learning. As I stated in my second entry – part one, my own reflective practice, since I have been a part of this course, has been one of the most profound aspects on my learning. I found it interesting that, according to Finlay, reflective practice involves both the process of learning through and from experience (to gain new insights) and the individual practitioner being self-aware and critically evaluating their own responses to practice situations. I found this second aspect very similar to metacognition, but also consider it equally important to engage in critical dialogue and reflection with other practitioners.

This links with Schon’s (1983) identification of two types of reflection: reflection-in-action, thinking about things while you are doing them and  reflection-on-action, thinking about things after the event. I felt that these two aspects were brought together quite well by reflexivity. Reflexive practitioners engage in both critical self-reflection: reflecting critically on the impact of their own background, assumptions, feelings, and behaviour while also attending to the impact of the wider organisational, ideological and political context (pg 6).

I do agree with Grushka, Hinde-McLeod and Reynolds (2005) addition of reflection for action as their series of technical, practical and critical questions (pg 4) seem aligned with the way I plan. I consider my resources and how long the lesson will take (technical and organised); how I can make the resources suit different learning styles (practical and personalised); and I question why I am teaching a particular topic (critical and relevant).

Perhaps the points that I found the most captivating were both the amount of work involved in all this reflection and the fact that much of it is forced!

“For busy professionals short on time, reflective practice is all too easily applied in bland, mechanical, unthinking ways. Would-be practitioners may also find it testing to stand back from painful experiences and seek to be analytical about them” (pg 1-2)

“Moreover, busy, over-stretched professionals are likely to find reflective practice taxing and difficult.” (pg 10)

“Reflection can have a profound emotional impact on the person reflecting and therefore has the potential to be harmful.” (pg 11)

“When required of individuals through learning and assessment exercises,
reflections can end up being superficial, strategic and guarded. Where assessment lurks, any genuine, honest, critical self-examination may well be discouraged.”    (pg 15)

“The problem with reflective practice is that it is hard to do and equally hard to teach. It is even harder to do and teach effectively.” (pg 15)

Certainly many of the students in my class, who are asked to reflect on their term goals set up on KnowledgeNET, would relate to Boud and Walker (1998) comparing their reflections to “…checklists which students work through in a mechanical fashion without regard to their own uncertainties, questions and meanings” (pg 10) and  “…ritualised, without reference to context or outcomes.”  (pg 11)

Luckily the article went on to suggest excellent ways to remedy these problems!

What reflective model do I find most suitable to use?

In our school the Teaching as Inquiry (TAI) we undertake is similar Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle (1988) (pg8) but also utilising one of Finlay’s five overlapping variants of reflexivity (pg 6-7). Mutual collaboration, is a participatory, dialogical approach to reflective practice – what Ghaye (2000) (and my team leader) call ‘reflective conversations’. Members of our professional learning team, seek to solve problems critically and collaboratively as illustrated by the model below.

My Teaching as Inquiry Process

As Finlay so succinctly says  “It seems neither possible nor desirable to fix on any one model as the definitive ‘answer’. Different models are needed, at different levels, for different individuals, disciplines and organisations, to use in different contexts.” (pg 10)

Certainly education is likely to benefit from the stimulus provided by competing perspectives and multiple models so long as the models are applied selectively, purposefully and flexibly.


Finlay, L. (2009) Reflecting on ‘Reflective practice’. Open University, Practice-Based Professional Learning Centre. Retrieved October 6, 2015 from

Activity 2 – Part 2 Reflections on Practice

What have I changed in my practice?

So many things! To name but a few…


Probably the biggest change in my classroom has been the introduction of Google Apps for Education (GAFE) for collaboration. The GAFE tools have been easy to use and opened the doors to many new ways of learning for my students. What I realised so succinctly on this course was, that to prepare my students for a connected, technology rich world, I needed to do my best to give them practice in such an environment.

I now use GAFE to join my students in the learning process and better engage them through collaboration and feedback. One of the advantages of GAFE is that I have the ability to invite my students to work on the same projects. There is just one copy that everybody accesses so everyone has the most up to date information and I can see what’s happening in ‘Real Time’.

In the time since implementing GAFE I have seen improved engagement and motivation due primarily to the inbuilt features such as comments, suggested editing, dictionary, thesaurus, and research capability. The platform has allowed a wider audience for my students writing, and improved the quality of content and their learning outcomes!


Study at the Mind Lab has also shown me that I have the ability to lead change initiatives. I can do this by involving all stakeholders accordingly in the process and implementing the innovation over stages. During and between each stage, I can reflect and responded to challenges that are sometimes related to my leadership. Successfully integrating technology into the classroom didn’t just happen – it took careful planning and preparation which required me to understand myself as a leader.

I needed to understand the various approaches to leadership, so that I could use the right approach for my situation. The way I did this was to learn more about the core leadership theories on the course, that provided the backbone of my current understanding of leadership. Clearly, how leaders behave affects their performance. Researchers have shown that many leadership behaviours are appropriate at different times (Hersey, Blanchard, & Johnson, 2001). The best leaders are those who can use many different behavioural styles, and choose the right style for each situation.

In my practice I now adapt my leadership style to the “maturity” and willingness of my team. This has created a new level of complexity: How thoroughly I consider the willingness, motivation, and abilities of my followers can decide how successfully I will lead. I have learned the leader isn’t everything: I must include my followers in the equation.

Real-World Problem Solving and Innovation

In today’s world, problem-solving tasks abound. This course has shown me that
to be successful, students must be adept at generating and testing ideas in order to solve a problem with a real set of requirements and constraints. This is very different from the simple word problems that I had previously taught, which were simply practice at executing specific learned procedures.

I have started using data from students day to day lives or real world situations to help frame the problems I am asking them to solve. This also represents innovation by requiring students to implement their ideas, designs or solutions for audiences outside the classroom. Problem-solving in this sense happens when students must develop a solution to a problem that is real, or complete a task that they have not been instructed how to do. It can also mean designing a product that meets a set of requirements. Examples this year have been building their own island in Minecraft, to withstand a tsunami (part of our “Passion Project” on Fridays) and creating a board game with a simple electric circuit to help the new entrants learn the alphabet.

The most rewarding part was just “letting go” of the locus of control, by motivating, encouraging and allowing students to do their own research and projects, in their own way, over long periods of time. Students were taking ownership, developing leadership and using the programme to enhance and extend their learning. It broke down barriers within the class, increased conversation and promoted co-operative learning. Friendship cliques were superseded by a class-wide focus on working together online to survive and flourish on the their “own” island.


21st Century Learning Design. (2015). 21CLD Learning Activity Rubrics. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from

Education Review Office. (2007). Quality teaching in years 4 and 8: Writing. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2001). Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Manktelow, J. (2011). Core Leadership Theories. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from Mind Tools:

Reading, M. (2015). Collaboration with Google Drive. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from Using Technology Better:

Activity 2 – Part 1 Reflections on learning

What have I learned about my own learning?

There are many things I have learned about myself as a learner on this course but I think two of the most profound are evidenced here on this blog – Reflective practice and the metacognitive process.

Reflective practice is an ability to reflect on one’s own actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential (Wikipedia, 2015). In Part 2 of this entry I will detail and reflect on three of the changes I have made to my practice since starting the course and my third entry critically evaluates Lynda Finlay’s (2008) views on the subject.

I have found this to be an important tool in my practice-based professional learning because I learn more from my own professional experiences, than from the formal learning or knowledge transfer of the course material. This may in fact be the most important source of my professional learning development. It is also an essential way for me to bring together theory and practice; through reflection I am able to see and label forms of thought and theory within the context of my work.

By reflecting throughout my practice I am not just looking back on past actions and events, but also taking a conscious look at emotions, experiences, actions, and responses, and using that information to add to my existing knowledge base and reach a higher level of understanding.

Metacognition is often simply defined as “thinking about thinking” (Livingston, 1997). For myself that is being able to reflect on my own cognitive experiences. The term is most often associated with John Flavell, (1979). According to Flavell metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides this into three categories: knowledge of person variables (individual knowledge of one’s own learning processes), task variables (knowledge about the nature of the task and the type of processing demands) and strategy variables (knowledge about both cognitive and metacognitive strategies, as well as when and where it is appropriate to use such strategies).

Metacognitive strategies are sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities, and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g., understanding) has been met. These processes consist of planning and monitoring cognitive activities, as well as checking the outcomes of those activities.

For example, in my third entry I will be responding to an article by Lynda Finlay (2008) and questioning myself about the concepts discussed therein. My cognitive goal is to understand the text and self-questioning is a metacognitive comprehension monitoring strategy. If I find that I cannot answer my own questions, or do not understand the material discussed, I must then determine what needs to be done to ensure that I meet the cognitive goal of understanding the text. I may decide to go back and re-read the article with the goal of being able to answer the questions I had generated. If, after re-reading through the text I can now answer the questions, I can determine that I understand the material. Thus, the metacognitive strategy of self-questioning is used to ensure that the cognitive goal of comprehension is met! Obviously I can apply the same concepts to my students.

A third aspect of myself as a learner that has been highlighted by this course is the importance of collaboration. For my dissertation at The University of Auckland I did all my own work and obviously received my own grade. This model did not prepare me well for my workplace, where I work on teams with others to accomplish tasks that are too complex for me to do on my own. My last two assignments at The Mind Lab were completed with the help of people on those teams and required collaboration skills to work productively and to integrate individual expertise and ideas into a coherent solution.

The course has enabled us to have shared responsibility for the workload, and the learning activities were designed in a way that required us to make substantive decisions together. These features helped me learn the important collaboration skills of negotiation, conflict resolution, agreement on what must be done, distribution of tasks, listening to the ideas of others, and integration of ideas into a coherent whole. Our work was interdependent and required us all to contribute in order for the team to succeed. It is this model that I will be using going forward with both my learning and teaching.


21st Century Learning Design. (2015). 21CLD Learning Activity Rubrics. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911

Livingston, J. A. (1997). Metacognition: An Overview. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from

Wikipedia. (2015). Reflective Practice. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from Wikipedia:

Activity 1 – Welcome!

Kia ora, hi and

My name is Antony Paine and I am a year 5/6 teacher at Freemans Bay School (FBS) in Auckland, New Zealand.

Currently I am studying for a Post-Graduate Certificate in Applied Practice (Digital and Collaborative Learning) through Mindlab, and having started to implement some of the digital and collaborative tools I have learnt about into my classroom, I am now writing my first reflective blog!

I entered teaching with experience in outdoor education and completed my Bachelor of Education (Teaching) Primary from the University of Auckland in 2011. At that time I was only able to secure a part time (0.6) role as the Sports Coordinator and Health and Physical Education (HPE) Teacher at Parnell District School (PDS) in Auckland. During my 2 years at PDS I was also studying for a Bachelor of Education (Teaching) (Honours) which I completed in 2013 with a dissertation on the effects of The National Standards (2010) on the teaching and learning of HPE in Primary Schools.

I am now in my 6th year of teaching and learning but am only eligible for full registration at the end of this year. It has been a fascinating journey and I know now that I have finally found my true career path at the ripe old age of 42!

In my 2nd year at FBS (2015) the school made two changes that were to effect forever the way I looked at teaching and learning in the classroom. Firstly we introduced Bring Your Own Learning Device (BYOLD) to our students, to try an address the shortage of ICT equipment we had at school, and secondly we knocked out the walls of our classrooms to create a Modern Learning Environment (MLE) and begin collaboratively teaching our classes.

At this time I was also fortunate enough to secure a NEXT Generation Teacher Scholarship for study at the Mind Lab. FBS is a very forward thinking school that seeks to engage, empower and enrich the students by having a strong commitment to resourcing future orientated learning and professional development for staff. All classrooms now have interactive computer boards,  i-pads, a range of netbooks and access to digital cameras and i-pods.

The school has a commitment to high academic standards and an expectation that all children will succeed. My current opportunity for post graduate study should ensure that my teaching practice is based on National and International research on best educational practice.

Our school online learning environment, KnowledgeNET enables students to post reflections on their learning and get feedback from their peers, teachers and parents.  We encourage our students to be accountable for their own learning, by documenting learning goals and progressions on our online learning environment.

It wasn’t until I started my studies at Mind Lab that I realised that this was just the tip of the iceberg!

Join me as I take you on my latest learning journey……

Freemans Bay School. (2015). About Us. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from Freemans Bay School:
Ministry of Education. (2015). National Standards. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from TKI:
Parnell District School. (2015). Home. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from Parnell District School:
The Mindlab by Unitec. (2015). Programme Overview. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from The Mindlab by Unitec:
University of Auckland. (2015). Bachelor of Education (Teaching) Primary. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from University of Auckland:
University of Auckland. (2015). Bachelor of Education (Teaching) (Honours). Retrieved October 5, 2015, from University of Auckland: